• ISSN 2399-1623

Current Volume

Infectious disease risk perception among Tunisian students: a case study of Leishmaniasis

11 July 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019007

Background In North Africa, especially in Tunisia, leishmaniasis is a real public health problem with 2000 to 8000 cases per year and average incidence rate >1/100 in some hyper-endemic villages. The geographical extension of the three forms of this zoonosis, the high incidence, the exorbitant cost (management, control) and especially the harms: functional, aesthetic, social, psychological are issues that question the promotional role of health education in Tunisian schools. In Tunisia, the introduction of health education in biological programs and textbooks aims at acquiring the knowledge and skills needed to prevent health risks. The present study aims to detect possible failures and to present a path of intervention to innovate preventive measures against infectious diseases.

Which countries are the best in tobacco control? A quantitative analysis of the MPOWER 2017

11 July 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019039

The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a package of advice to countries including six main policies (MPOWER) to control tobacco use. Our objective was to perform a quantitative analysis of MPOWER in countries and regions to create competition between parties. This cross-sectional study was based on the MPOWER data 2017, with countries assessed using a validated check list of 10 criteria (possible maximum score 37). The scores were summed and presented in a descending order for 6 regions. The 23 countries which had at least 85% of total score (i.e., at least 32 from 37) were: United Kingdom, Turkey and Costa Rica (36); Brazil, Panama and Australia (35), Surinam, Colombia, Iran and New Zealand (34); Portugal, Russia, Ireland, Seychelles, Mauritius, Canada, Uruguay and Argentina (33); and Romania, Estonia, Denmark, Spain and Norway (32).

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From training to workflow: a mixed-methods assessment of integration of Doppler into maternity ward triage and admission in Tanzania

11 July 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019040

Globally, an estimated 2.7 million neonates died in 2015 during the neonatal period, including about 0.7 million intrapartum deaths. In Tanzania, 46,000 neonates died in 2016. Nearly two-thirds of these deaths could have been prevented through improvements in quality of care at the time of delivery. Scaling up the use of Doppler for fetal assessment may support such improvements. We describe and assess the inputs and processes used to integrate Doppler into the workflow of maternal triage upon admission to Tanzanian labor and delivery wards

Systematic review of diabetes management among black African immigrants, white and South Asian populations

27 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019020

This study aims to explore the differences in the management of diabetes outcomes and prevalence among black Africans, white and South Asian populations living in western countries from published evidence. This review incorporates findings from differences in diabetes management outcome among black Africans compared to white and South Asian populations.

Postnatal care in Rwanda: facilitators and barriers to postnatal care attendance and recommendations to improve participation

27 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019032

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of neonatal mortality in the world with an estimated 1.2 million deaths within the first 28 days of life. Postnatal care (PNC) can contribute to reductions in morbidity and mortality in mothers and newborns through vital support that identifies danger signs and establishes valuable practices and referral processes.

The modelling assessment of World Vision’s Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Program in Southern Africa countries, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia: analyses using Lives Saved Tool

25 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019019

Since 2010, the humanitarian aid organization World Vision has implemented a community-based water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) program in 76 area development programs (ADPs) for a total target population of 2,831,535 in three Southern Africa countries: Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia.

“Loving the sinner, hating the sin”: an investigation of religious leaders’ perceived role in the lives of persons living with HIV in Soweto, South Africa

25 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019021

In South Africa, the Church has historically played an important role in the lives of the Black population. In light of the high number of Black persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the country, it is important to explore religious leaders’ perceptions of HIV/AIDS and PLWHA to inform the development and implementation of faith-based interventions.

Investigating the significance and current state of knowledge and practice of absent or reduced fetal movements in low and lower middle-income countries: a scoping review

25 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019023

Absent or reduced fetal movements (ARFM) are linked to adverse perinatal outcome in high income countries but the significance of this symptom in low and lower middle income countries (LMICs) is less established. The objective of this study was to report the current state of knowledge and practice regarding the association between ARFM and adverse pregnancy outcomes in LMICs

Estimating reach of social impact products: A model to standardize the calculation of product reach in data-scarce settings

25 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019029

Social impact interventions often involve the introduction of a product intended to create positive impact. Program decision makers need data to routinely review product delivery as well as predict potential outcomes and impact to optimize intervention plans and allocate resources effectively. We propose a novel model to support data-driven decision-making in data and budget-constrained settings and use of routine monitoring to ensure progress towards program outcomes and impact.

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Improving access to appropriate case management for common childhood illnesses in hard-to-reach areas of Abia State, Nigeria

25 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019030

Studies have demonstrated that trained community health workers can improve access to quality health services for under five children. Under the World Health Organization’s Rapid Access Expansion Progamme, integrated community case management of childhood illnesses (iCCM) was introduced in Abia and Niger States, Nigeria in 2013. The objective of the program was to increase the number of children 2-59 months receiving quality life-saving treatment for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea by extending case management through community- oriented resource persons (CORPs). We present findings from household surveys comparing baseline and endline data to assess changes in sick child care-seeking, assessment, and treatment coverage provided over the project period in Abia State.

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Variability of clinical practice decisions on Latin American mobile medical service trips (MSTs)

25 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019034

Short-term medical service trips (MSTs) are increasing in popularity, but there is scant evidence evaluating the working competence of volunteer clinicians. Challenges to providing consistent high-quality care include cultural and language barriers, the frequent absence of confirmatory diagnostic tests, and a lack of context-appropriate best practice guidelines.

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TXTTaofiTapaa: pilot trial of a Samoan mobile phone smoking cessation programme

25 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019035

Smoking remains a major risk factor to good health across the Pacific region. Samoa, like other Pacific nations, has signed up to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) to reduce the prevalence through actions including providing smoking cessation services. A text message cessation programme that had been proven successful in New Zealand was adapted and trialled in Samoa. The aims of this study were to trial the Samoan mCessation programme TXTTaofiTapaa to determine the feasibility, acceptability and potential to help smokers in Samoa to quit.

Role of Anopheles baimaii: potential vector of epidemic outbreak in Tripura, North-east India

25 June 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019036

Malaria is one of the foremost public health concerns in north-east India. The state of Tripura, belonging to north-east India recently reported an outbreak of malaria during 2014 with thousands of positive cases and several deaths due to malaria. The epidemic has occurred mainly in the high transmission areas affecting the young population. This study was undertaken to find out the vector species responsible for the outbreak.

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Using the Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys from 2011 and 2016 to assess changes in Saving Mothers, Giving Life intervention districts

01 May 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019026

Launched in 2012 in Uganda and Zambia, Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL) was a five-year initiative that aimed to improve access to and use of maternal and newborn health care services, as well as to strengthen the quality of these services. The results revealed that while respondents and their children in both the SMGL and control areas demonstrated significant improvements in MCH indicators between 2011 and 2016, the gains were largely not significantly different between the treatment and control areas, with the exception of two indicators: blood pressure measurement among women with ANC and births delivered by cesarean section.

Community participation and maternal health service utilization: lessons from the health extension programme in rural southern Ethiopia

01 May 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019027

Health extension workers (HEWs) are the implementers of the unique primary health care programme of Ethiopia. They facilitate community participation in maternal health service delivery via the health development army (HDA) and pregnant women forums (PWFs). As part of a quality improvement intervention, HEWs received training, guidance and supervision focused on facilitation of HDA meetings and PWFs. We aimed to assess the effect of the intervention on maternal health service utilization and explore the perceptions of stakeholders regarding efforts to enhance community participation in maternal health.

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Haiti Acute and Emergency Care Conference: descriptive analysis of an acute care continuing medical education program

30 April 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019012

Several disasters over the past decade have highlighted the need for strong acute-care systems in Haiti. As part of a multifaceted approach to improving national acute-care training, the Research and Education consortium for Acute Care in Haiti (REACH) launched the inaugural Haiti Acute and Emergency Care Conference (HAECC).

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A program to further integrate mental health into primary care: lessons learned from a pilot trial in Tunisia.

30 April 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019022

Tunisia is a lower-middle-income country located in North Africa. Since the 2010-2011 Revolution, a campaign of civil resistance to protest high levels of youth unemployment, difficult living conditions, and government corruption, a rise in mental health problems, substance use disorders, and suicide attempts/ deaths has been recorded. To address untreated mental health symptoms, a mental health training program was offered to primary care physicians (PCPs) working in the Greater Tunis area of Tunisia, a collaboration between members of the Tunisian Ministry of Health, the School of Public Health at the Université de Montréal (Québec, Canada), the World Health Organization (WHO) office in Tunisia, and the Montréal WHO-PAHO Collaborating Center (CC) for Research and Training in Mental Health (Québec, Canada).

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Transnational family support and perspectives from family members back home: a pilot study in Kisumu, Kenya

30 April 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019025

Transnational family support as a resource for migrants is understudied, particularly from the perspective of those providing support from a distance. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of conducting transnational research and gathering data from family members back home using communication technology. Preliminary data on the experience of providing transnational support to migrant family members living abroad, were also collected

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Women’s modern contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa: does men’s involvement matter?

27 March 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019013

Men’s involvement in family planning can play an important role in improving the use of modern contraceptives. Several studies have shown that family planning interventions that involve men have resulted in positive outcomes. However, these studies are mainly case-control studies with a specific focus area. This paper used data from men’s responses in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 27 sub-Saharan African countries to study whether there is an association between men’s involvement and modern contraceptive use using nationally represented cross-sectional data.

Exploring causal pathways for factors associated with neonatal, infant and under-five mortality, analysis of 2015-2016 Myanmar Demographic Health Survey

27 March 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019015

This study explores the intermediate and proximate causal factors associated with under-five mortality in Myanmar in order to help policymakers to assess and formulate appropriate interventions to prevent neonatal, infant and under-five deaths.

Use of pulse oximetry during initial assessments of children under five with pneumonia: a retrospective cross-sectional study from 14 hospitals in Ethiopia

27 March 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019016

Hypoxemia, a fatal condition characterized by low concentration of oxygen in the blood, is strongly associated with death among children with pneumonia. Ethiopia’s Federal Ministry of Health launched its first National Oxygen and Pulse Oximetry Scale-up road map to improve access and utilization of pulse oximetry and oxygen. This study aimed to describe the use of pulse oximetry during the initial patient assessment among children under five diagnosed with pneumonia and serves as a benchmark to measure progress of the road map.

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Major limb loss (MLL): an overview of etiology, outcomes, experiences and challenges faced by amputees and service providers in the postconflict period in Northern Uganda

27 March 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019028

Trauma is a leading cause for major limb loss (MLL) during war. As societies transition into peace other factors become important. The voluntary sector plays a diminishing role in service delivery as countries transition towards peace.

At the frontier of the global battle against emerging infections: surveillance and management of avian influenza A(H7N9) in Guangdong Province, China

14 March 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019018

Guangdong, which stands at the frontier of emerging infections, has developed an innovative system approach to this threat. The province of 110 million inhabitants, a major hub for domestic and international trade, includes mega-cities side-by-side with small-scale agricultural areas in a region from which recent strains of influenza and other respiratory viruses have emerged. Guangdong residents consume chicken and purchase it at live poultry markets, which can accelerate the emergence of influenza strains and transmission to humans. We describe Guangdong’s approach to surveillance and public health emergency response.

Making healthcare decisions for terminally ill adults and elderly in rural Bangladesh: an application of social autopsy.

18 February 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019002

This study investigated healthcare decision-making surrounding ter- minal illnesses of adults and elderly persons (aged 15 years or more), who later died at home, hospitals, or in-transit, in a rural, low-income area of Bangladesh where out-of-pocket health expenditure is very high.

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Gender inequities and global health outcomes.

18 February 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019017

Gender has a great impact on the health of some of the most vulnerable popula- tions in the world. Cultural biases against females result in: female infanticide, a lack of female immunisation, malnourishment due to neglect in infancy, sex- ual and physical violence resulting in injury and sexually transmitted disease, female genital mutilation/ cutting (FGM/C), mental illness, and health systems that do not adequately meet female needs. Female health is also damaged by a lack of focus from research, a disproportionate responsibility placed on females for caring for others, and economic and social situations that result in a lack of access for females to healthcare. Men also suffer from cultural expectations which lead them to disregard their own health, indulge in risky behaviours, and become involved in crime or war. Given that gender cuts across so many aspects of health, it is clear that addressing these cultural issues has a huge impact on the health of vulnerable populations. Globally, cultural change must be addressed through education, together with changes to social policy and legal and economic frame- works to increase female empowerment and encourage more equitable treatment.

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Applying the social determinants of health lens to the situation of young key populations in Zambia: what can it tell us about what we could do?

15 February 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019008

According to census data, Zambia has a predominantly young popula- tion with 65% under the age of 25 years. Improving the sexual and reproductive health of young people aged 15–24 years has become a crossing-cutting priority for sustainable development for the country. Certain sub-groups within this population, namely young gay men and other men-having-sex-with-men; young sex workers; young transgender people; and young prisoners – collectively termed key popula- tions – may have poorer sexual and reproductive health than their general popula- tion peers. The application of the social determinants of health framework offers a way to understand these inequities in order to more effectively address them.

Maternal postnatal care in Bangladesh: a closer look at specific content and coverage by different types of providers

28 January 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019004

The first 48 hours after birth is a critical window of time for the survival for both mothers and their newborns. Timely and adequate postnatal care (PNC) is being promoted as a strategy to reduce both maternal and new- born mortality. Whether or not a woman has received a postnatal check within 48 hours has been well studied, however, specific content and type of provider are also important for understanding the quality of the check. The objective of this paper is to understand who receives specific PNC interventions by type of provider in Bangladesh.

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Morocco investment case for hepatitis C: using analysis to drive the translation of political commitment to action

28 January 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019011

Worldwide more than 125 million people are infected with hepatitis C (HCV). New drugs, direct acting antivirals (DAAs) that can cure HCV in three months, are available in generic form at very low cost in over 100 low- and middle-income countries, yet few countries have launched national campaigns. In Morocco, more than 350,000 people are infected with chronic HCV infection yet only 1,500 individuals with mandatory social health insurance are currently treated each year with DAAs. Such treatment coverage is low for this group and is completely inaccessible to the remaining 70% of the population.

A prospective study of causes of death in rural Gadchiroli, an underdeveloped district of India (2011-2013).

23 January 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019009

Reliable information on causes of death to understand health priorities is rare from rural underdeveloped regions of India but is needed to direct health care response. This prompted us to study causes of death in a rural region of Gadchiroli, one of the most underdeveloped districts of India.

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Institutionalization of stock status report in the management of HIV/AIDS programme: experience from Nigeria.

23 January 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019010

Incomplete and poor quality of data generated by routine health information systems limit their use in program planning, implementation and monitoring. Prior to 2012, there was no central structure in place in Nigeria for the collation, analysis and presentation of HIV/AIDS Logistics Management Information System (LMIS) data in a usable format.

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Sleep and children’s development in India

11 January 2019
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019006

Change in lifestyle, late marriage and various other reasons results preterm baby, caesarean baby and various birth defects. Further children’s health is becoming fragile due to change in food habits like: regular use of snacks, caffeinated drinks, fast foods, inorganic foods etc., use of plastics as food vessels, use of antibiotics, due to lesser physical activity, lesser play, and stressful study routine etc. Proper sleep to a large extent makes body evolve and adapt to the changed requirements.

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Exploring the relationship between life expectancy at birth and economic growth in 56 developing countries

10 December 2018
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019001

Higher income per capita (IPC) means better access to public and private health services those are provided by public or private sectors in a country. Good health service which lowers mortality rates in a country promotes to reach a long living population level with a higher life expectancy at birth (LEB) and healthy labour force enhancing productivity. People feel themselves more productive with a good health care hence increasing productivity and working hours will cause an increase in IPC (economic growth) incessantly. In traditional economic growth theory, labour force which is one of the factors of production function has got an important effect on the country’s economic growth. This study aims to investigate the relationship between LEB and IPC data and vice versa for 56 developing countries in North Africa, Middle-East and South-East Asia where most of them are Islamic countries and members of The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

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Integrating, advocating and augmenting palliative care in Malaysia: a qualitative examination of the barriers faced and negotiated by Malaysian palliative care nongovernmental organisations

10 December 2018
J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019003

Since its introduction in 1991, Malaysian palliative care has made significant progress, with an estimated 26 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and 68 government hospitals providing palliative care facilities and services nationwide. Distinct models between these sectors create unique challenges for each sector in progressing palliative care, requiring different strategies to address these.

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